The tibia, or shinbone, is the one of the most significant weight bearing structure of human skeleton. Evidently, therefore a fracture in this bone severely hampers movement of the individual. A tibial shaft fracture happens along the bone length, under the knee and above the ankle.
Owing to its inherent strength, it takes a major force to cause its fracture. Motor vehicle collisions are a common cause of tibial shaft fractures. In several tibia fractures, the smaller bone within the lower leg (fibula) is broken as well. It can be cured by under observation of orthopedic surgeon and implants and instruments provided from trauma implants manufacturer in India
The lower leg is formed of 2 bones: the fibula and tibia. The tibia is the larger of the 2 bones. It supports most of the weight and is an joined to the ankle joint at one end and to the knee joint on the other end.
Types of Tibial Shaft Fractures
Tibia fractures differ greatly, relying on the force that causes the break. If the parts of bone are aligned properly it is called a stable fracture or if it is out of alignment, it is termed a displaced fracture. When the skin around the fracture is intact, it is closed fracture otherwise the bone might puncture the skin and it is classified as open fracture. In several cases of intense injury, along with tibia, the fibula is also broken.
Technically, Doctors describe fractures utilizing classification system. Tibia fractures are classified based on:
- The fracture location (the tibial shaft is divided into 3: distal, middle, and proximal)
- The fracture pattern (for example, the bone can break in various directions, such as crosswise, in middle, or lengthwise)
- Whether the skin and muscle over the bone is torn by the injury (open fracture)
The most common kinds of tibial shaft fractures include:
Transverse fracture– In this kind of fracture, the break is a straight horizontal line going across the tibial shaft.
Oblique fracture– This kind of fracture has an angled fracture line across the shaft.
Spiral fracture– The fracture line encircles the shaft just like the stripes on a candy cane. This kind of fracture occurs due to a twisting force.
Comminuted fracture– In this kind of fracture, the bone breaks into 3 or more parts.
Open fracture– If a bone breaks in such a way that fragments of bone stick out through the skin or a wound penetrates right down to the broken bone, the fracture is referred as an open or compound fracture. Open fractures typically involve damage to the surrounding tendons, muscles, and ligaments also. They have a higher risk for complications-particularly infections- and take an extended time to heal.
Tibial shaft fractures are usually caused by some sort of high-energy collision, such as a motor vehicle crash. In cases like these, the bone may break into many pieces (comminuted fracture).
Sports injuries, like a fall e.g. skiing or a collision with another player such as in soccer, are lower-energy injuries that may cause tibial shaft fractures. These fractures usually are a result of twisting force and lead to an oblique or spiral fracture.
A tibial shaft fracture often causes immediate, severe pain. Other symptoms can include:
- Deformity or instability of the leg
- Inability to walk or bear weight on the leg
- Bone “tenting” over the skin at the site of fracture or bone protruding through a break in the skin
- Sometimes loss of feeling in the foot
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