According to the report by UNICEF, the proportion of under-five children that are suspected with pneumonia and taken to hospital is 73%. The current Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) for the year 2019 in 30.924 deaths per 1000 live births and has reduced by 3.36% from the year 2018. This shows that the health infrastructure in the country has improved to some extent but still there is a scope for improvement. According to the best child hospital in Jaipur, the period of childhood is marked with a wide variety of diseases that can be infectious and noninfectious and can include viral and bacterial infections along with allergic and immunologic illness. With the beginning of the winter season, the children are susceptible to common winter infections like cold and flu. But some other diseases and infections affect children, particularly in the winter season. 

Pediatricians list the following diseases and infections in children

Pneumonia

This is a kind of bacterial infection that occurs in winters generally in small children but sometimes adults, people more than 65 years of age or those with a weak immune system are also affected by this. The air sacs inflame and are filled with fluid resulting in coughing and difficulty in breathing. The symptom may vary from mild to severe including chest pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, reduced body temperature, etc.  

Common cold

All of us had suffered cold in our childhood and it was one of the reasons for school leave. One of the major forms of viral infections, the children may showcase symptoms like runny nose, cough, nasal congestion, headache, and sore throat. In the initial days, the child may have a fever and the symptoms worsen after 3-5 days. The good thing is that the symptoms tend to reduce after 7-10 days by itself and the child can feel much better. 

Influenza

Most of us have heard the term influenza but it is more commonly called the flu and can be identified with symptoms like muscle pain and aches, high fever and sore throat. Antiviral medications can be an effective way to treat influenza but the symptoms get reduced by itself after a period of 5 to 7 days. The children should be vaccinated annually to avoid the risk associated with influenza. 

Bronchiolitis

It is a type of viral respiratory infection that occurs in young children especially those who are less than 12 months old. The child may initially experience symptoms similar to that of a common cold but gradually as the infection progresses, it can lead to the worst situation in which other symptoms also develop like wheezing, dehydration and breathing problems. 

In brief

Children love to play and frolic in the winter season and as a parent, it might be difficult for you to stop them. But the pediatricians at the best child hospital in Jaipur suggest that maintaining good hand hygiene can help your children prevent infectious diseases. The children should cover their mouths while sneezing and coughing to avoid the spreading of germs in the surrounding. In the case of infants, the parents should make sure that the infants do not come in direct contact with the people who are ill and also the crowded areas where infections can spread at a faster pace. All these measures along with consultation by a child specialist can help children to overcome these common childhood diseases. 

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